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Who, do you think, is responsible for errors in Robotic Surgery?

Robots are revolutionizing medicine. They can work in ways that humans cannot. In surgery, they can be more sensitive, more precise, can scan for problems a human may not see, and they can draw on data from procedures carried out by other robots. Robots do not get tired and their decision-making is consistent. But if they do make mistakes, who is responsible?

In this survey, the five scenarios are entirely fictitious. In them, a patient comes to harm and you need to judge who is most responsible.

The scenarios are not drawn from any surgical incidents and they are not linked to any current interventions.